Table of Contents

**Review Topics Of Electronic**s

- What is the electronics? Define some important applications of electronics.
- discuss briefly the structure of the atom.
- Explain how valence electrons define the electrical properties of a material.
- Explain the constant voltage source and constant current sources. What is their utility?
- Derive the condition for the delivery of maximum power from a supply to a load.
- State and elaborate the Thevenin’s theorem.
- Write short notes on the following :

(i) Atomic structure (ii) Valence electrons (iii) Free electrons

**Problems** **Of Electronics**

- A dry battery generating 12 V has an internal resistance of 10 Ω. determine the output current if load is

(i) 100 Ω (ii) 10 Ω (iii) 2 Ω and (iv) 1 Ω. [(i) 0.1A (ii) 0.6A (iii) 1A (iv) 1.1A]

2. Convert or transfer the current source in Fig. 1.48 into the equivalent voltage supply.

[36 V in series with 900 Ω]

- Convert or transfer the voltage supply in Fig. 1.49 into the equivalent current source. [3 mA in parallel with 8 kΩ]
- based on Norton’s Theorem, find the current in-branch AB having 6 Ω resistor of the network shown in Fig. 1.50 [0.466 A]

- Fig. 1.51 shows Norton’s equivalent circuit of a network behind A and B terminals. transfer it into Thevenin’s equivalent circuit. [2.56 V in series with 1.71 Ω]

- A power amplifier has an internal resistance of 5 Ω and generates an open-circuited voltage of 12 V. determine the efficiency and power delivered to a load of (i) 20 Ω (ii) 5 Ω. [(i) 80%, 4.6 W (ii) 50%,7.2W]
- based on Thevenin’s theorem, find the current passes through the galvanometer in the Wheatstone bridge shown in Fig. 1.52. [38.6 µA]
- Using Thevenin’s theorem, determine the current passes through 4 Ω resistor in the circuit of Fig. 1.53. [0.305A]

**Discussion Questions**

- Why in electronics-free electrons are most important?
- Why insulators do not have any free electrons?
- Where we will apply Thevenin’s theorem?
- Why is maximum power transfer or delivered theorem is most important in electronic circuits?
- What are the practical applications of a constant current source?

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MCQ’s| Electrons|Atomic | Voltage |Thevenin’s

Norton’s Theorem | Chassis and Ground| Properties

Thevenin’s Theorem | Properties | Problems

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem |Applications

Conversion of Voltage Source into constant Current Source