Optical Communication | Reflection | Connectors | Types of Fiber-Optics

Optical Principles Optical : Optics is a major field of study in itself and far beyond the scope of this book. Most courses in physics introduce the basic principles of light and optics. We review briefly those principles that relate directly to optical communication systems and components. Light Light, radio waves, and microwaves are all … Read more

Microwave Antennas | Horn | Parabolic | Helical | Bicone | Patch | Radar

Microwave Antennas All the antennas we discussed can also be used at microwave frequencies. However, these antennas will be extremely small. At 5 GHz a half-wave dipole is slightly less than 1 in long and a one-quarter wavelength vertical is slightly less than 0.5 in long. These antennas can, of course, radiate microwave signals, but … Read more

Ground Stations | Satellite Applications | Global Navigation Satellite

Ground Stations The ground stations, or earth station, is the terrestrial base of the system. The ground station communicates with the satellite to carry out the designated mission. The earth station may be located at the end user’s facilities or may be located remotely with ground-based intercommunication links between the earth station and the end-user. … Read more

Satellite Orbits | Satellite Communication Systems | Satellite Subsystems

Satellite Orbits Satellite: The ability to launch a satellite and keep it in orbit depends upon following well-known physical and mathematical laws that are referred to collectively as orbital dynamics. In this section, we introduce these principles before discussing the physical components of a satellite and how it is used in various communication applications. Principles … Read more

Microwave Diodes | Frequency-Multiplier Diodes | Oscillator Diodes

Small-Signal Diodes Microwave Diodes : Diodes used for signal detection and mixing are the most common microwave semiconductor devices. Two types are available: the point-contact diode and the Schottky barrier or hot carrier diode. The typical semiconductor diode is a junction formed of P- and N-type semiconductor materials. Because of the relatively large surface area … Read more

Microwave Concepts | Communication Systems | Size and Frequency

Microwave Concepts Microwave are the ultrahigh, super high, and extremely high frequencies directly above the lower frequency ranges where most radio communication now takes place and below the optical frequencies that cover infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light. The outstanding benefits for radio communication of these extremely high frequencies and accompanying short wavelengths more than offset … Read more