What Is Electronic Communication | Attenuation | Transceiver | Receiver

What Is Communication? Communication is the process of exchanging information. People communicate to convey their thoughts, ideas, and feelings to others. The process of communication is inherent to all human life and includes verbal, nonverbal (body language), print, and electronic processes. Two of the main barriers to human communication are language and distance. Language barriers … Read more

Simplex | Full Duplex | Modulation | Multiplexing | Baseband | Broadband

Types of Electronic Communication communication are classified according to whether they are (1) one-way (simplex) or two-way (full duplex or half duplex) transmissions and (2) analog or digital signals. What is Simplex Communication? The simplest way in which electronic communication is conducted is one-way communications, normally referred to as simplex communication. Examples are shown in … Read more

Frequency |Frequency Ranges | Spectrum | Optical Spectrum | Bandwidth

The Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic waves are signals that oscillate; i.e., the amplitudes of the electric and magnetic fields vary at a specific crate. The field intensities fluctuate up and down, and the polarity reverses a given number of times per second. The electromagnetic waves very sinusoidally. Their frequency is measured in cycles per second (cps) … Read more

Gain | Attenuation | Decibels | Problems | Examples

Most electronic circuits in communication are used to process signals, i.e., to manipulate signals to produce the desired result. All signal processing circuits involve either gain or attenuation. What is Gain? Gain means amplification. If a signal is applied to a circuit such as the amplifier shown in Fig. 2-1 and the output of the … Read more

Tuned Circuits | Reactive Components | Skin Effect | Parallel Resonant

What Is Tunned Circuits? Virtually all communication equipment contains tuned circuits, circuits made up of inductors and capacitors that resonate at specific frequencies. In this section, you will review how to calculate the reactance, resonant frequency, impedance, Q, and bandwidth of series and parallel resonance circuits. Reactive Components All tuned circuits and many filters are … Read more

Filter | RC Filter | Low High Pass | RC Notch | LC Filter | Roll-off | Pole

What is Filter? A filter is a frequency-selective circuit. Filters are designed to pass some frequencies and reject others. The series and parallel resonant circuits reviewed in Section 2-2 are examples of filters. There are numerous ways to implement filter circuits. Simple filters created by using resistors and capacitors or inductors and capacitors are called … Read more

Types of Filters | Mechanical | Band Reject | Bandpass

What Are types of Filters? The major types of LC filters in use are named after the person who discovered and developed the analysis and design method for each filter. The most widely used filters are Butterworth, Chebyshev, Cauer (elliptical), and Bessel. Each can be implemented by using the basic low- and high-pass configurations are … Read more

Active Filters | Schematic symbols | Characteristics

What Are Active Filters? Active filters are frequency selective circuits that incorporate RC networks and amplifiers with feedback to produce a low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, and bandstop performance. These filters can replace standard passive LC filters in many applications. They offer the following advantages over standard passive LC filters. Gain. Because active filters use amplifiers, they … Read more

Crystal Filters and Ceramic Filters | Surface Acoustic Wave Filters

What is Crystal Filters? The selectivity of a filter is limited primarily by the Q of the circuits, which is generally the Q of the inductors used. With LC circuits, it is difficult to achieve Q values over 200. In fact, most LC circuit Qs are in the range of 10 to 100, and as … Read more

Switched Capacitor Filters | Commutating Filters

What is Switched Capacitor Filters? Switched capacitor filters (SCFs) are active IC filters made of op amps, capacitors, and transistor switches. Also known as analog sampled data filters or commutating filters, these devices are usually implemented with MOS or CMOS circuits. They can be designed to operate as high-pass, low-pass, bandpass, or bandstop filters. The primary … Read more