Transmission | A/D Conversion | A/D Conversion

What is Parallel and Serial Transmission? Transmission:- There are two ways to move binary bits from one place to another: transmit all bits of a word simultaneously or send only 1 bit at a time. These methods are referred to, respectively, as parallel transfer and serial transfer. Parallel Transfer In parallel data transfers, all the … Read more

Digital Communication | Advantages and Disadvantages

Digital Transmission of Data ( Digital Communication )The term data refers to information to be communicated. Data is in digital form if it comes from a computer. If the information is in the form of voice, video, or some other analog signal, it can be converted to digital form before it is transmitted. Digital communication … Read more

Frequency Demodulator and Its Types

Types of Frequency Demodulator Frequency Demodulator: Any circuit that will convert a frequency variation in the carrier back to a proportional voltage variation can be used to demodulate or detect FM signals. Circuits used to recover the original modulating signal from an FM transmission are called demodulators, detectors, or discriminators. Slope Detectors The simplest frequency … Read more

Phase Modulators and Its Types

Phase Modulators and Its Types Phase Modulators:- Most modern FM transmitters use some form of phase modulation to produce indirect FM. The reason for using PM instead of direct FM is that the carrier oscillator can be optimized for frequency accuracy and stability. Crystal oscillators or crystal-controlled frequency synthesizers can be used to set the … Read more

Advantage, Disadvantage and Application of FM

Frequency Modulation Versus Amplitude Modulation Advantages of FM Advantage, Disadvantage and Application of FM:- In general, FM is considered to be superior to AM. Although both AM and FM signals can be used to transmit information from one place to another, FM typically offers some significant benefits over AM. Noise Immunity. The main benefit of … Read more

Noise Suppression Effects of FM

Noise Suppression Effects of FM Noise Suppression Effects of FM: Noise is interference generated by lightning, motors, automotive ignition systems, and any power line switching that produces transient signals. Such noise is typically narrow spikes of voltage with very high frequencies. They add to a signal and interfere with it. The potential effect of such … Read more

Modulation Index of FM and Sidebands OF fm

Modulation Index of FM and Sidebands of FM Modulation Index of FM:- Any modulation process produces sidebands. When a constant-frequency sine wave modulates a carrier, two side frequencies are produced. The side frequencies are the sum and difference of the carrier and the modulating frequency. In FM and PM, as in AM, sum and difference … Read more

FIA Deputy Director Online Test Preparation Past Paper 1

Federal Public Service Commission FIA Test Preparation FIA test preparation one: FPSC | Tests | Preparation Material | Syllabus | Jobs Current Affairs | Pakistan Affairs | Everyday Science | English | Mathematics | Islamic Studies | General Knowledge | GK (Pakistan) | Economy of Pakistan | Education in Pakistan The main objective and priority … Read more

Frequency Modulation and Phase Modulation (PM)

The Principles of FM (Frequency Modulation) [ Frequency Modulation and Phase Modulation (PM)] the carrier amplitude remains constant and the carrier frequency is changed by the modulating signal. As the amplitude of the information signal varies, the carrier frequency shifts proportionately. As the modulating signal amplitude increases, the carrier frequency increases. If the amplitude of … Read more